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Place during which an individual bathes underneath a twig of water

A combination shower and bathtub, with movable screen

A shower is a place during which an individual bathes beneath a spray of usually warm or sizzling water. Indoors, there is a drain in the flooring. Most showers have temperature, spray pressure and adjustable showerhead nozzle. The simplest showers have a swivelling nozzle aiming down on the consumer, whereas extra complicated showers have a showerhead related to a hose that has a mounting bracket. This allows the showerer to carry the showerhead by hand to spray the water onto different parts of their physique. A shower could be put in in a small bathe stall or bathtub with a plastic bathe curtain or door. Showering is common in Western culture because of the efficiency of using it in contrast with a bathtub. Its use in hygiene is, due to this fact, common apply.[page needed]


The authentic showers have been neither indoor buildings nor man-made however have been common natural formations: waterfalls.[2] The falling water rinsed the bathers fully clear and was more efficient than bathing in a conventional basin, which required handbook transport of each fresh and waste water. Ancient individuals began to breed these natural phenomena by pouring jugs of water, typically very cold, over themselves after washing. There has been proof of early higher class Egyptian and Mesopotamians having indoor shower rooms where servants would bathe them within the privateness of their very own properties. However, these had been rudimentary by fashionable standards, having rudimentary drainage methods and water was carried, not pumped, into the room. The ancient Greeks had been the first folks to have showers. Their aqueducts and sewage systems made of lead pipes allowed water to be pumped each into and out of large communal shower rooms used by elites and common residents alike. These rooms have been found on the site of the town Pergamum and may additionally be found represented in pottery of the era. The depictions are very similar to trendy locker room showers, and even included bars to hold up clothes.[page needed] The ancient Romans also followed this convention; their well-known bathhouses (Thermae) can be found throughout the Mediterranean and as far out as modern-day England. The Romans not only had these showers but additionally believed in bathing multiple times per week, if not every day. The water and sewage techniques developed by the Greeks and Romans broke down and fell out of use after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Modern showers

The first mechanical shower, operated by a hand pump, was patented in England in 1767 by William Feetham,[citation needed] a stove maker from Ludgate Hill in London. His bathe contraption used a pump to pressure the water right into a vessel above the user’s head and a chain would then be pulled to release the water from the vessel. Although the system dispensed with the servant labour of filling up and pouring out buckets of water, the showers didn’t catch on with the rich as a method for piping scorching water via the system was not out there. The system would also recycle the same dirty water through every cycle.

This early begin was significantly improved within the anonymously invented English Regency shower design of circa 1810 (there is a few ambiguity among the many sources).[2] The authentic design was over 10 toes (3 m) tall, and was made of a number of steel pipes painted to appear to be bamboo. A basin suspended above the pipes fed water right into a nozzle that distributed the water over the person’s shoulders. The water on the ground was drained and pumped again by way of the pipes into the basin, where the cycle would repeat itself.[citation needed] The unique prototype was steadily improved upon in the following decades until it began to approximate the bathe of at present in its mode of operation. Hand-pumped fashions grew to become modern at one point as nicely as the utilization of adjustable sprayers for various water flow. The reinvention of dependable indoor plumbing around 1850[6] allowed free-standing showers to be linked to a working water source, supplying a renewable circulate of water.[citation needed] Modern showers have been put in in the barracks of the French army in the 1870s as an financial hygiene measure, underneath the steering of François Merry Delabost, a French doctor and inventor.[7] As surgeon-general at Bonne Nouvelle prison in Rouen, Delabost had previously replaced particular person baths with mandatory communal showers for use by prisoners, arguing that they had been more economical and hygienic.[8] First six, then eight shower stalls were put in. The water was heated by a steam engine and in lower than 5 minutes, as much as eight prisoners might wash simultaneously with solely twenty litres of water. The French system of communal showers was adopted by different armies, the first being that of Prussia in 1879, and by prisons in different jurisdictions. They had been additionally adopted by boarding faculties, before being installed in public bathhouses. The first bathe in a public bathhouse was in 1887 in Vienna. In France, public bathhouses and showers have been established by Charles Cazalet, firstly in Bordeaux in 1893 after which in Paris in 1899.[9]



Domestic showers are mostly stall showers or showers mixed with a bath. A stall bathe is a dedicated shower space which makes use of a door or curtain to comprise water spray. The shower/tub format saves bathroom area and enables the world for use for both a bath or a shower and commonly makes use of a sliding bathe curtain or door to contain the water spray. Showers may be in a wet room, in which there is no contained shower space, or in a dedicated bathe room, which doesn’t require containment of water spray. Domestic showers can have a single shower head, multiple shower heads, handheld bathe head(s) or other variations, all which may be adjustable as needed to varying levels.


Many trendy athletic and aquatic services present showers for use by patrons, generally in gender segregated changing rooms. These could be in the form of particular person stalls shielded by curtains or a door or communal bathe rooms. The latter are typically massive open rooms with any number of bathe heads put in either immediately into the walls or on posts all through the shower space. Open showers are often offered at public swimming swimming pools and at popular seashores. Military forces all over the world set up field showers to allow the washing away of harmful residue from fashionable weapons corresponding to caustic chemical compounds, lethal organic agents, and radioactive supplies, which might hurt forces on each side of a battle.

Wet room

A moist room usually refers to a bathroom with out inside dedicated or raised areas which has an open bathe. Structurally, a wet room requires the toilet to have a gradient or slope in path of a drain gap, and a foul air trap connecting the ground to the waste pipes. Depending on area, the term moist room also can encompass other rooms such as laundry rooms. In Norway, for example, any room with faucet water and a drain in the ground is considered a moist room.[11] Different jurisdictions usually have particular regulations regarding the design and development of wet rooms to forestall damage from damp air or water leakage, e.g. mold. There are additionally often particular laws concerning electrical installations in moist rooms. For example, since water supplies often have their very own electrical grounding, there may be an added danger of harm associated with ground faults, and a few jurisdictions subsequently require the set up of residual-current devices in wet rooms.


Brazilian electric shower

  • Air shower, a sort of bathing where high strain air is used to blow off extra mud particles from cleanroom personnel.
  • Digital bathe, a shower system that works in an identical way to mixer or power showers, but supplies extra control over the temperature of the water with using a digital control panel.
  • Eco shower, a shower system that is obtainable in mixer or electrical variations, but additionally includes a regulator to manage the circulate of water with a view to saving water.
  • Electric shower, a shower stall device to domestically warmth bathe water with electrical power.
  • Emergency showers, put in in laboratories and other services that use hazardous chemical compounds, are required by regulation in the United States;[12] designed to deluge constantly at round 30–60 US gallons (110–230 L) per minute for at least 15 minutes and ought to be located at most 10 seconds away from potential users.
  • Mixer shower, a shower system that takes water from present hot and cold water provides and combines them throughout the unit.
  • Navy shower, a way of showering that enables for important conservation of water and vitality.
  • Power bathe, a shower stall gadget that works similarly to a mixer shower by mixing current cold and hot water feeds, however locally increases the water strain out there to the shower head via an electric booster pump.
  • Roman shower, a shower that does not use a door or curtain.
  • Steam shower, a kind of bathing the place a humidifying steam generator produces steam that is dispersed round a person’s physique.
  • Vichy shower, a bathe the place giant portions of heat water are poured over a spa patron while the person lies within a shallow (wet) bed, just like a massage desk, but with drainage for the water.

Types of shower heads

  • Fixed shower heads: Traditional fastened shower-heads are largely widespread shower-faucets because they can easily connect with the plumbing fixtures with none additional hardware.
  • Shower handsets: Hand-set shower-faucets are linked by a flexible hose, and can be mounted and used like a set shower-head.
  • Ceiling-mounted taps: Ceiling-mounted shower-faucets are usually rain-drop shower-heads mounted in the ceiling of the shower. Water rains down, at low or medium strain, using gravity to bathe on one from immediately above.[16]
  • Adjustable shower heads: Adjustable bathe faucets often have numerous settings, together with pulsating massage and low/medium/high-pressure circulate settings.
  • Shower panels: Unlike a single showerhead, these are wall-mounted with sprayers aimed horizontally at numerous components of the physique.

Use and ecology

Shower usage within the latter half of the twentieth century skyrocketed. Personal hygiene grew to become a major concern, and bathing every day or a quantity of times a day is widespread among Western cultures.[page needed] Showering is generally quicker than bathing and may use less water. In an average house, showers are typically the third largest water use after toilets and clothes washers. The common American bathe makes use of 17.2 US gallons (65 l; 14.3 imp gal) and lasts for eight.2 minutes at a mean circulate price of two.1 US gallons (7.9 l; 1.7 imp gal) per minute.[17] Showering is likely considered one of the main methods individuals use water within the house, accounting for almost 17 percent of residential indoor water use, which roughly equals to 1,200,000,000 US gallons (4.5×109 l; 1.00×109 imp gal) of water yearly only for showering.[18] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends to retrofit residence showers with a bathe head that uses less than 2 US gallons (7.6 l; 1.7 imp gal) to conserve water. However, many have hypothesized reducing move charges of showerheads might cause users to take for a lot longer showers.[19] Other options to save lots of water embody utilizing additional high pressure mist move or design in sensors and valves to close off or scale back water circulate whereas individuals are not actively utilizing the shower water.

Various measures could be taken to extend safety for these, particularly aged people, taking showers or baths. When a person takes a shower could indicate their social place. Blue collar staff and youngsters have been discovered to be more prone to take a shower in the evening after work and school, whereas white collar staff have been found to shower in the morning before work.[citation needed] Some people take more than one bathe every day, normally at their regular shower time, and after exercising. People also bathe to chill off in scorching weather, particularly these unaccustomed to the local weather.[21][better source needed] Used bathe water may be employed as greywater.

Cultural significance

Showering is usually a part of a day by day routine primarily to advertise cleanliness and prevent odor, disease and an infection. Advances in science and medicine in the 19th century started to realize the good factor about common bathing to an individual’s health. As a end result, most modern cultures encourage a day by day personal hygiene regimen. Showering has additionally developed the popularity as a soothing and usually therapeutic activity.[page needed]

Structure and design

Designs for shower facilities vary by location and purpose. There are free-standing showers, but additionally showers that are built-in into a bathtub. Showers are separated from the surrounding space through watertight curtains (shower curtain), sliding doors, or folding doors, or bathe blinds, to have the ability to shield the house from spraying water. Showers with a degree entry wet room have gotten very fashionable, particularly because of improvements in waterproofing methods and prefabricated elements. Places such as a swimming pool, a locker room, or a military facility have a quantity of showers. There could additionally be communal shower rooms with out divisions, or bathe stalls (typically open at the top). Many types of showers can be found, together with full bathe items which are all encompassing showers that embody the pan, walls, and sometimes the shower head, in addition to pieced together units during which the pan, shower head, and doorways are bought separately. Each sort of shower poses completely different set up points.


Though the installation necessities of each of shower will differ, the set up of a shower normally requires the laying of several water transportation pipes, including a pipe for warm water and for chilly water, and a drainage pipe. It is necessary that the wet areas a WC be waterproof, and a quantity of layers of waterproofing may be employed. Grout is used to fill gaps between tiles, but grout and tile setting supplies are generally porous. Tiles are usually waterproof, though a shower pan must be installed beneath them as a security to forestall water leakage.[22] Thus small mosaic tiles supply much less of a defense than giant format tiles. Sub-tile waterproofing is important when tiles are being used. Best apply requires a waterproofing material to cover the partitions and flooring of the bathe space that are then covered with tile, or in some international locations with a sheet materials like vinyl.


Shower repair exhibiting drain piping with trap

This diverter valve about to be installed behind a shower mixes cold and warm water.

A bathe may be equipped with a second emergency drain outside of the bathe in case of overflow. An emergency overflow drain is required in Australia and a few European nations.[citation needed]

Shower head

A shower head is a perforated nozzle that distributes water over solid angle a focus of use, generally overhead the bather. A shower uses much less water than a full immersion in a bath. Some shower heads could be adjusted to spray different patterns of water, corresponding to therapeutic massage, light spray, robust spray, and intermittent pulse or mixture modes. Hard water may end in calcium and magnesium deposits clogging the pinnacle, reducing the move and altering the spray pattern. For descaling, various acidic chemical compounds or brushes can be used or some heads have rubber-like jets that might be manually descaled. A do-it-yourself remedy is to immerse it in an answer of water and vinegar for some time, because the vinegar is ready to dissolve limescale. Some governments around the world set standards for water usage and regulate bathe heads. For example, within the United States, residential and most business shower heads should move no more than 9.5 litres (2.1 imp gal; 2.5 US gal) per minute per the Department of Energy ruling 10 CFR 430. Low-flow shower heads which have a water flow of equal or less than 7.6 litres (1.7 imp gal; 2.0 US gal) per minute (2.0 gallons per minute), can use water more efficiently by aerating the water stream, altering nozzles by way of superior circulate rules or by high-speed oscillation of the spray stream. The US EPA administers a voluntary water saving program, WaterSense, which may certify low-flow bathe heads.

Shower and bathtub curtains

Curtains can be used in shower or bathtub enclosures with two primary purposes: to offer privateness and to stop water from flooding or spraying exterior the shower or bathtub space. Shower and bathtub curtains normally surround the bath inside the tub or shower space and are held up with railings or curtain rods high on the wall or ceiling. To accommodate the several varieties of bathtub shapes, railings can come in numerous sizes and are versatile in their design.

Some individuals use two bathe curtains: one that’s inside the bathtub, which is especially functional or ornamental as properly, and an outer bathe curtain, which is purely decorative. The backside portion of the inside curtain often comes with magnetic discs or suction cups which adhere to the tub itself.

These curtains are normally created from vinyl, cloth or plastic.

Shower and bathtub doors

Shower or bathtub doors are doors (also referred to as screens) utilized in bathrooms that help keep water inside a bathe or bathtub and are options to shower curtains. They are available in many various kinds corresponding to framed or frameless, sliding or swing. They are often constructed of aluminium, clear glass, plexiglass or tempered glass. Shower doorways can come in many alternative hardware finishes and glass patterns that can match other bathroom hardware corresponding to faucets and shower heads. There are additionally bathe doors which are in a neo angle design to be used on shower pans that have the neo design as nicely. The design of the bathe pan is extremely important because the bathe door should be the sort required for the pan to be able to work. A bathe door requires plastic lining alongside the edges of the door to protect in opposition to water leaking out.


  • Pressure-balanced valve, a tool to offer fixed bathe water strain and stop temperature fluctuations
  • Shampoo
  • Shower caddy, a storage system inside the bathe, typically for shampoo, conditioner, cleaning soap and other associated things
  • Shower cap, a cap worn whereas showering or bathing, to protect hair from changing into wet
  • Shower radio, a radio that’s waterproofed to allow it for use in a bathroom or different moist environment
  • Shower speaker, a little Bluetooth speaker designed to listen to music while showering
  • Soap
  • Washing mitt, a device for making use of soap to the body
  • Water warmth recycling items to reclaim much of the waste water’s heat and recycle it to the bathe head and reduce heat misplaced to the drain